I am very happy to establish this blog tonight. Please excuse me firstly. Because I went back to
China and saw doctor to cure my headache during the spring festival. So I can not accomplish this
assignment in time. My name is wang chen . You can call me eden. I am twenty years old. Especially
today is my birthday. This is the third semester for me to study inMalaysia. I think the social
circumstance and natual environment are extremely appropriate for me to study in this university.
The teachers and classmates here are very kind and friendly. I chose the major in English education
for the sake that I could improve my english proficiency. In china English is just foreign language. But
in malaysia English is treated as second language. In fact I want to continue my master drgree here.
Accordingly I have to study harder and harder. As to thinking skill in education, I think it is very
important for a good teacher to acquire good method of education.
Nice to contact to you through the blog.
I am lonely lonely lonely 我是这么孤独，
I am lonely lonely in my life 我的生命是这样孤独，
I am lonely lonely lonely 我是这么孤独，
God help me help me to survive! 上帝呀，请给我活下去的勇气。
Remember first time we met day one 还记得我们见面的那天
Kids in the garden playin’ games havin’ fun 孩子们在花园里正玩的开心。
Excitin’ and amazin’ havin’ a real friend of mine 很高兴找到自己的知心朋友
Face to face and eye to eye 面对面的眼神交流。
Usin’ our hands to buy and supply 用我们的双手来补偿和交换，
Chillin’ is cool from January to June 从寒冷的一月到凉爽的六月天，
And we still sticked together like the glue 我们还是无法离散。
We know the rules 我们知道游戏的规则，
Forever you and I believe it was clear 是永远那么清楚明白。
If I ever should fall 如果我跌倒，
I could count on you with no fear 我并不害怕，还有你可依靠。
Runnin’ out of time I see who’s fake 日久见人心，
Alone without protection from all them snakes 在这险恶的世界里。
All for one one for all I was told “人人为我，我为人人”他们这样告诉我
Black white yellow if your young or old 不论你的皮肤颜色还是年龄大小。
Nana’s in the house to let you know Nana在这里告诉你，
What I see is how I feel and damn 我看见的就是我感觉的。
I’m alone 我只有我自己。
I am lonely lonely lonely 我是这么孤独，
I am lonely lonely in my life 我的生命是这样孤独，
I am lonely lonely lonely 我是这么孤独，
God help me help me to survive! 上帝呀，请给我活下去的勇气。
Everybody’s trippin’ on me 所有的人都把我践踏，
Oh Lord come help me please 上帝呀，快来帮助我。
I did some bad things in my life 我一定是做错了什么事，
Why can’t you rescue me 你为什么就不能拯救我，
‘Cause you’ve got all I need 因为你能给我想要的一切。
I know I got to pay the price 我知道我必须付出代价。
That’s why I’m lonely lonely lonely 这就是为什么我这样孤独，
I am so lonely lonely 我是这么孤独，
I am so lonely lonely lonely in my life 我的生命是这么孤独。
Cheepin’ thru the streets at night 穿过午夜孤独的大街，
After a fuss and fight 身上带着新添的伤痕。
Tears in my eyes 眼含泪水，
I’m a man lookin’ for the light 去寻找光明。
Dark is the path 黑暗是必经之路，
He will rescue me 上帝会拯救我，
The Lord is my shephard 他就是我的领路人。
I’m cool despite emergency 虽然急迫但我内心依然冷静，
Whom shall I fear exept the god 除了上帝我谁也不怕。
Thank you for the blessin’ 感谢上帝保佑，
And the skills on the mic 赐予我美妙歌喉。
After-school education plays an important role in the all-round development of primary and secondary school students. Under the cooperative administration of departments in charge of education, culture, physics, worker‘s union, the Communist Youth League, Committee for Women‘s and Children‘s Work and science and technology, after-school education is conducted by joint efforts of the concerning central departments. In 1986, the First national Conference on After-school Education was convened and the Second One in 1991, and consequently a number of regulations on after-school education have been formulated, providing guidance to such work.
After-school education always adheres to the policy of integration of schools, the society and families, and strive to give full scope to the unique educational role of after-school activities. After school, children may take part in the scientific, cultural, and recreational activities organized by children‘s palaces, children‘s clubs, scientific and technological centers for teenagers, and other similar institutions.
After-school education is conducted through rich and colorful extracurricular activities organized in the light of the age and interests of school children, such as stage performances, competitions of aircraft, ship and motor vehicle models, exhibitions of small inventions and handicraft making, literary writing, summer and winter camping and so on, to mould the students‘ temperament and temper their willpower.
In China, primary and secondary education takes 12 years to complete, divided into primary, junior secondary and senior secondary stages. Primary education lasts either 5 or 6 years with the former accounting for 35% of the total enrollment and the latter 65% of the total enrollment. At junior secondary stage, most have 3 years schooling with a tiny part of 4 years. Almost 98% of students are enrolled in the former schools. The 9-year schooling in primary and junior secondary schools pertains to compulsory education. General senior secondary education lasts 3 years.
1 Implementation of 9-hear compulsory Education
Since the promulgation of the “Compulsory Education Law of the People‘s Republic of China” in 1986, the 9-year compulsory education has been implemented by governments at various levels and made significant progress. According to the statistics of 2002, the net enrollment rate of primary school age children attained 98.58%, and the proportion of primary school graduates continuing their study in junior secondary schools (including vocational ones) reached 97.02%. In the urban areas of large cities and economically developed coast areas, the universalization of senior secondary education has been launched.
Chinese government attaches great importance to the universalization of compulsory education in rural, poor and minority areas. In 1987, the former SEdC and the ministry of Finance jointly issued the “Opinion on Some Issues Concerning the Reform of Administration of Basic education in rural Areas”. At present, basic education is provided by the governments at the county, township and administrative villages levels with the administrative power assumed by county and township governments and with major decision made by the county governments. Efforts are made to integrate the development of education and the upgrading of quality of labor force with the development of the local economy and the advancement of culture and ethical and living standard of the people. As a result, the development of rural education and local economy have been promoted.
The school year of primary and secondary school is divided into two semesters. The school year of primary schools comprises 38 weeks of teaching sessions with an additional week in reserve and 13 weeks for holidays and vacations. The school year for junior secondary schools comprises 39 weeks for teaching with an additional week in reserve and 12 weeks for holidays and vocations. The school year for senior secondary schools comprises 40 weeks of teaching with one or two weeks in reserve and 10 to 11 weeks for holidays and vocations. A five-day week has been implemented in primary and secondary schools.
In the autumn of 1993, primary and junior secondary schools began to implement the “Teaching Scheme (Curriculum) for Full-time Primary and Secondary Schools (Pilot)”, and this scheme includes the arrangement of subjects and syllabuses of them. According to the scheme, subjects are divided into two categories: state-arranged subjects and locally-arranged subjects, with the latter determined by the authorities of provincial-level governments in the light of local realities and needs.
Pre-school education is an important component of education cause in China. In urban areas, pre-school education is mainly kindergartens of 3 years, two years or one year which could be full time part-time, boarding or hour-reckoned. In rural areas, pre-school education is mainly nursery classes and seasonal kindergartens in addition. In the aging, minority, remote and poor areas, besides the normal preschool education, there are irregular education with various forms such as children activity centers, game groups, mobile aid centers, and mobile service called “caravan”. Following the policy of providing per-schooling education by the state, collective bodies, citizens and individuals and developing through multiple channels in various forms, pre-school education in China has made significant progress. By the end of 2002, China has more than 111,800 kindergartens with the enrollment of 20,360,200 pupils. Per-school education has been generally universalized in big and middle-sized cities. During recent years, pre-school education in the mass rural areas, particularly in remote, poor and minority areas, has developed rapidly. The kindergartens combine childcare with teaching so that the children will develop physically, morally, intellectually and aesthetically in a harmonious way to get ready for their formal school education. The educational activities conducted in kindergartens constitute a systematic, purposeful and multi-faceted process of education conductive to lively, invigorating and sound development of children. With playing games as the main part of educational activities in kindergartens, a good environment should be created conducive to the education with conditions and opportunities offered to children to live and display their expressiveness.
Basic education in China includes pre-school education, primary education and regular secondary education.
Before the foundation of the People‘s Republic of China in 1949, basic education in China was extremely backward. In 1946, the peak year of educational development, the country had only 1,300 kindergartens, 289,000 primary schools and 4,266 secondary schools. After 1949, the +education. With the adoption of the policy of reform and opening to the outside world in 1978, basic education entered a new era of progress. In 1985, the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party issued the “Decision on the Reform of the educational Structure”, laying down the principle that local governments should be responsible for basic education. The new policy was an incentive for local governments, especially those of the counties and townships. In 1986, the National People‘s Congress promulgated the “Commpulsory Education Law of the People‘s Republic of China”, thus placing basic education in the country on a firm legal basis. In 1993 the CPC Central Committee and the State Council jointly issued the “Guidelines for the Reform and Development of Education in China”, clarifying the directions and basic policies for the development of basic education till the early years of the 21st century. In early 1999, the State Council ratified the “Action Plan for Educational Vitalization Facing the 21st Century” formulated by the Ministry of Education (MoE) , laying down the implementation of the strategy of “Invigorate China through Science, Technology and Education” and drawing the blueprint of reform and development for the crosscentury education based on the “Education Law of the People‘s republic of China” and the “Guidelines for the Reform and Development of Education in China”. In June 1999, the CPC Central Committee and the State Council jointly promulgated the “Decision on the Deepening of Educational Reform and the Full Promotion of Quality Education”, clarifying the direction for the establishment of a vital socialistic education with Chinese characteristics in the 21st century.
During the past 50 years since the founding of the People‘s Republic of China, basic education in China has gained tremendous achievements. In 2002, there were 111,800 kindergartens with an enrollment of 20,360,200 young children. By 2002, there were altogether 456,900 primary schools with an enrollment of 121,567,100 students and the net enrollment rate of primary schools had reached 98.58%. 97.02% of the graduates enjoyed the access to junior secondary schools and the full-time teachers in primary schools had reached 5,778,900. In addition, there were 65,600 junior secondary schools with an enrollment of 66,874,300 students and the net enrollment rate of junior secondary schools had been raised to 90%. Those schools employed totally 3,467,700 full-time teachers and 58.3% of the junior secondary school graduates continue their study in senior secondary schools. By the end of 2002, the Nine-Year Compulsory Education (NYCE) had been universalized in the area where 90% of the population inhabits, the highest rate among the E-9 countries.
“Understanding Islamic Education” is the title of a tape by Imam Hamza Yusuf that I have been listening to recently. Interestingly, just last week, an article came to me via the internet called “The Impact of Western Hegemony on Muslim Thought” by Prof. Yusuf Progler. First of all, I had to look up “hegemony” in the dictionary. According to the dictionary, it means, “predominance of one state over others”. As I had hoped, the article was a link to understanding the differences between Islamic and Western Education. In both articles, the authors spoke about the contradiction of Western education and Islamic education, the effects of Western education on the Ummah in recent history, and most importantly, the effects on us and the next generation of Muslims, our children.
In my family, this has recently become a predominent topic of study and conversation as my 3 1/2 year old daughter is rapidly becoming the human sponge that Allah Subhanahu wa ta ‘ala created children to be. The important thing about this phenomenon is the way that children learn from watching and imitating what is around them. I did not realize this fully until one day during Maghrib prayer she recited the Fatiha and two other surahs . Just like that. I was pretty surprised and upon coaxing, I found out that she also knew two more surahs and could call the Iqama. Subhana Allah ! The need for formal education for her in another year and a half has led me to investigate different avenues available to us; private Islamic school, homeschooling, or public school.
In Prof. Yusuf Progler’s paper, he warns against Muslims participating in the Western educational system. He says that by using it, one adopts Western assumptions on the nature of existence. “Most Western practices of education have institutionalized (their) one version of what it means to be a human being…Muslims ought to re-evaluate their situation because the Western understanding of existence is quite different than the teachings of Islam. Islam has its own explanation…”
Western colonizers of Muslim countries knew the importance of taking Islam out of the minds of Muslims, and achieved this by secularizing schools and teaching Islam only in an historic context at the end of the school day when the student’s concentration was at its lowest. Results of this can be seen in many immigrant Muslims in America. When someone suggested to an immigrant sister that she should not let her children watch so much TV, and instead, teach them about their deen, she said that only Allah made people Muslims and she prayed that Allah would make her children Muslims. She honestly didn’t understand the concept of educating her children about Islam.
On the internet, a sister raised in a Muslim country was writing about the wonderful freedoms of living in the US. Some Muslims seem to take the influence of an Islamic atmosphere for granted ; adhan being called at each prayer time, modestly dressed people, halal food the norm, everyone greeting with salaams, lack of crime, availability of Qur’anic teachers and people treating one another as brothers and sisters in Islam, as being an influence in their upbringing. The importance of this environment on a young Muslims’s mind can not be replaced by the material advantages of living in a western country. The Western society teaches children by exposure that the norm of society is high crime, alcohol, fornication, high divorce rate, teenage pregnancies, deviant sexual practices, immodest clothing, putting individual desires over societal needs, lack of morals and charity, etc. According to Dr. Shahid Athar in “Sex Education: An Islamic Perspective”, children in America are exposed to 9,000 sexual scenes per year through the media and on television . Even now in public schools children are taught that homosexuality is an acceptable alternative form of family life.
Homeschooling can help Muslim families veer away from Western influences not only physically, but by allowing the family to choose it’s curriculum. There are many Muslim homeschooling resources, and one comprehensive program is ArabesQ Academy which is overseen by writer and educator Umm Sulaiman. She offers many solutions for Muslim families including lesson plans ranging from complete daily plans to monthly overviews. Also offered are on and offline correspondance courses with secular education taught via classic Islamic viewpoints, again with curriculum designed for each families needs.
Another family has fought the battle of raising their children in an Islamic household and then sending them to local public schools. They seemed to be a good example of how the two opposite institutions could coexist. After many years of this apparently good mixture of two worlds, things began to fall apart. The peer pressure of participating in Western culture raises it’s ugly head during the teen years. A typical problem is teenage daughters refusing to wear hijab unless praying or attending Islamic functions.
Prof. Progler also says that “…it’s not enough for Muslims to say that the West is bad without an understanding and development of what may be an alternative. This requires a delicate balance. Imbalance will lead to teaching religion without any understanding of how the modern world is affecting the practice and understanding of religion”. Many Islamic schools in America try to create this balance within their curriculums. The Islamic School of Seattle, for instance, commits to “…provide children with an atmosphere as close to the Islamic ideal as possible…strenghten them to meet and deal effectively with the challenges of living in the modern American society, and…to instill in them a pride in their heritage by enabling them to approach knowledge from an Islamic point of view.”
According to Imam Yusuf in “Understanding Islamic Education”, Arabic has to be a foundation for Islamic education. Knowledge is obtained by first learning the tools of knowledge; language, reasoning and the ability to articulate. The Arabic language has been preserved since the time of the Qur’anic revelations. This allows one to perceive the meanings of the Quran as it was intended and revealed to the people of that time, which is crucial as the Qur’an is not interpreted through conjecture, but through knowledge. That is why The Prophet, may peace be upon him, said that whoever interprets the Qur’an from his own opinion is mistaken, even if he is correct. Also, traditional Islamic education teaches children to memorize the whole Qur’an between the ages of 7 and 9. This, Yusuf says, “…develops a memory in a child that will surpass others in any school system.” From a purely academic point of view, “the idea is to empower a child with the ability to absorb information, as a good deal of learning is based on that ability.”
The next step after Arabic and Qur’an according to Imam Yusuf, is the study of Hadith, followed by fiqh. He then commented that at least one or two people in every family should dedicate themselves to this learning, or we will seriously decrease our knowledge in the future. We need to produce scholars to lead the future ummah. The Prophet, may peace be upon him, said that the two parents of a child who memorizes the whole Qur’an will be given crowns of light on Yauma Qiyauma. Why would we rather teach our children to be engineers or doctors? Imam Yusuf and Prof. Progler both quoted the following hadith in their works: The Prophet, upon whom be peace, walked into a mosque where there was a group of people surrounding a man. The Prophet inquired, “Who is that?” He was told, “That is a very learned man.” The Prophet asked, “What is a learned man?” They told him, “He is the most learned man regarding Arab genealogies, past heroic episodes, the days of Jahiliyyah, and Arabic poetry.” The Prophet said, “That is knowledge whose ignorance does not harm one nor is its possession of any benefit to one .”
We know the history of the Islamic state since the time of the Prophet, may peace be upon him. We have had successes and failures. The Prophet, may peace be upon him, said that the believers are a mirror to each other. It is imperative that we look in the mirror of history and see that the successes were achieved through seeking Allah. To do this, we must ask ourselves some serious questions. What are we living this life for? What do we want to teach our children to live their lives for? To work for Microsoft, or to work for the pleasure of Allah Subhanahu wa t’ala ?
Many warnings about this life are given by Allah throughout the Qur’an, as in surah 31:33; “…Indeed, the promise of Allah is truth, so let not the worldly life delude you and be not decieved about Allah by the Deciever (i.e.,Satan).”
This ayat appears again in surah 35:5. To ignore this would be to participate in the deception of our children. It is our responsibility as parents to give them the education they need in order to not be deluded by this worldly life. What this is ascribing us to is an ideal Islamic life. There are difficulties, but it is our responsibility to build ourselves and our children up to the Islamic excellence that Allah and His Messenger, may peace be upon him, have provided us with the guidance to achieve.
The final component of systems thinking that we have identified is
scientific thinking. Let me begin by saying what scientific thinking is not.
My definition of scientific thinking has virtually nothing to do with
absolute numerical measurement. Too often, science is taken to be
synonymous with “measuring precisely.” To me, scientific thinking has
more to do with quantification than measurement. Again, the two are not
synonymous. There are very few things that can be measured
unambiguously, for instance, length, width, height, concentration,
magnitude, and velocity. But think of all the things that cannot be
measured precisely: how much wisdom you possess; how nice a person
you are; what it feels like to go to a particular high school; how hungry
you are; how much you love someone; how much self-esteem you have;
how frustrated you feel.
I think most people would agree that all these nonmeasurable
things are important. None can be gauged on any absolute numerical scale,
but all of them can be quantified. It’s simple. Pick a scale—for example,
0-100—and assign a value. Zero means “the absence of.” One hundred
means “maximum possible amount.” Establishing a scale does not mean
one can specify exactly what any of these values are in the real system. It
means only that one has established a rigorous convention for thinking
about the dynamics of the variable. Now one can ask questions like, What
keeps self-confidence from rising above 100? Since 100 has been defined
as “maximum possible amount,” some processes must exist in the real
system that prevent this accumulation from overflowing! Having been
rigorous (scientific) about the quantification, one can then think rigorously
about the dynamics of the variable.
Thinking scientifically also means being rigorous about testing
hypotheses. This process begins by always ensuring that students in fact
have a hypothesis to test. Once again, in the absence of an a priori
hypothesis, the experimentation process can easily degenerate into a video
game. People will simply flail away trying to get one of the Super Mario
Brothers to the Princess. Having an explicit hypothesis to test before
engaging in any simulation activity helps guard against the video game
syndrome. The hypothesis-testing process itself also needs to be informed
by scientific thinking. People thinking scientifically modify only one thing
at a time and hold all else constant. They also test their models from steady
state, using idealized inputs to call forth “natural frequency responses.”
This set of rigorous hypothesis-testing concepts really is at the heart of
what I mean by scientific thinking.
The seven-track melee
When one becomes aware that good systems thinking involves
working on at least these seven tracks simultaneously, it becomes a lot
easier to understand why people trying to learn this framework often go on overload. When
these tracks are explicitly organized, and separate attention is paid to
develop each skill, the resulting bite-sized pieces make the fare much more
digestible. We’ve found that explicitly separating these seven tracks, then
attending to skill development in each, greatly increases learning